PART THE THIRD.
IT appears from the best information which can now be obtained, that when Saint Helena was discovered it had no other birds than sea fowls, of the same species with those which now frequent the coast.
These are, the frigate pelican, or man of war, pelicanus aquilus : it is a large, dark-coloured bird, in length from three to four feet, and ten to fourteen feet in width, from the extremities of the wings : it soars to a great height, from which it darts with wonderful rapidity to seize its prey—usually the flying fish.
The tropic bird, phæton ethereus : the bill is red, the eyes surrounded with black, a few of the larger quill feathers near their ends are black, tipped with white ; all the rest of the bird is white, except the back, which is variegated with curved lines of black. The legs and feet are of a vermilion red ; the toes webbed ; the tail consists of two long, straight, narrow, white feathers.
There are also the white-bird, black-bird, and egg-bird : they are about the size of a full-grown pigeon, and in abundance. The eggs of the latter, which are deposited in their nests on the islets and rocks round the coast, are very good : the skin of the white bird is in curious contrast to its plumage, which is uniformly and delicately white, and that as entirely black. These birds are sometimes brought to table, but not much liked on account of their fishy taste.
To these may be added, the noddy, sterna stolida ; petrel, procellaria capensis ; and the grenadier gross-beak, loxia orix, locally called, wire-bird.
The following are the land birds, all of which have been gradually introduced : the varieties are more valuable than numerous, most of them being articles of food.
Peacock, brought from Bombay in 1788 : it is a magnificent bird, larger than the turkey : the female deposits her eggs in some secret place to prevent the male destroying them.—They are wild.
Pheasants.—A species from China ; the plumage of peculiar beauty by night they roost on the alpine trees, and by day descend into the brakes and bushes of the lower pastures ; they do potatoe crops considerable damage, by raking them out of the earth.
Partridge.—Said to be from France : they prefer the rocky and barren parts of the Island ; their plumage is cinereous, the chin white, with a black band—the bills and legs blood-red. This bird is properly the only game, the pheasants being reserved for the hospitalities to strangers, already mentioned ; and a proper delicacy to the inhabitants has generally disposed the governor to decline complying with the wish for a sport, from which the gentlemen of the Island are excluded.
Domestic poultry are plentiful, and all good in their kinds, but much too dear ; large supplies of them are furnished to shipping.
Guinea-fowls, not numerous : the common pigeons are plentiful.
The other land birds are the dove, Java sparrow, amaduvade, and Canary,—the two last as numerous as sparrows in England.
* * *
To attempt a particular description of the great variety of fish, with which Providence has so richly stored the ocean, surrounding this Island, is beyond the writer’s ability ; a list of them, therefore, with a few remarks upon some of the species, is all that he ventures to offer.
Of the shark there are four kinds : the carcharias, or white shark it is a monstrous fish, having its dreadful jaws furnished with several rows of teeth ;—fatal accidents have happened to persons incautiously swimming in James’s Bay, by these rapacious animals.
Glancus, or the blue shark.
Zygæna, or balance-fish, locally called the shovel-nose shark.
Mackerel-shark, from two to five feet long, and esteemed good food. It is probably the acanthias, or piked dog-fish.
Attendant on the carcharias is the pilot-fish ; and affixed to the shark’s body the echeneis remora, or suckingfish ; this is from ten to eighteen inches in length, and of an uniform brown colour.
Whales are numerous in July, August, and September : they are very large, but seldom taken. The racehorse is said by the South-Sea whalers, to be the species most frequenting these seas.—The grampus is often seen.
The dolphin is a voracious and strong fish, pursuing the smaller ones, and especially persecuting the exococtus mesogaster, or flying-fish, which often dart on shore to avoid their enemy their finny wings soon becoming dry they are incapable of returning to the sea, and thus meet the fate they sought to escape from in their native element. The flying-fish is good eating.
There are two species of barracuda : the belone, or gar, and the barracuda of Catesby—edible.
Bonito, or bonetta, scomber pelamis, is often caught : it is not fit for food unless immediately dressed ; it also attacks flying-fish, &c. and is tormented in turn by internal worms.
The albicore is a large, edible fish, from two to five feet long : its flesh, when cut up raw, resembles that of beef, but when cooked it is nearly white. It is also a fish of prey.
Rock-fish, gobrius strigatus, is a beautiful species, frequenting the rocks in shallow water—not in estimation as an article for the table.
The broad-finned sword-fish, xiphias platypterus, sometimes appear ; they are said to be the decided enemies of the whale.
Mackerel is, of all other fish, in greatest abundance : they are an important and valuable acquisition to the troops and inhabitants.—horse-mackerel are sometimes taken to windward.
Sun-fish, probably a species of cephalus, have been met with.
Pentadactylos piscis, the five finger, has on each of its silvery sides five black streaks, resembling the marks of as many fingers : its back is reddish ; the fins white : not large, but plentiful in season, and are excellent.
The coal-fish, carbonarius, often weighs from twenty to thirty pounds : it has its name from the black colour its skin assumes ; the flesh is white, delicious, and very rich. There is a sort, not so good, called bastard coal-fish.
A species of cod-fish is sometimes procured.
There are two or three sorts of mullet ; not abundant, but good edible fish.
Flounders are scarce and very inferior.
Of the muroenas there are the sea-serpent, small ; the common eel, two sorts ; and four varieties of the conger :
1. The white conger, having purple bones. 2. The spotted, or echidua. 3. The green, viridis : and 4. a smaller species, usually taken in holes of the rocks washed by the sea—its colour is red.
Soles are very seldom to be obtained.
The kurtus indicus, or silverfish, is excellent.
To these may be added, the porpoise, a species of hystrix, or porcupine-fish ; striped fish, perhaps surmuletus ; pike-fish ; smaller remora, or sucking-fish ; trumpet and snake-fish.
Yellow tail. Jack. Bull’s eye. Gurnard. Hog. Parrot. Leather coat. Cunning. Bream. Kingson. Green. Cavally. Landspear. Lanthorn. Devil. Trooper. Bottle. Soldier. Stonebrass. Beard. Oldwife, and doubtless many other kinds.
The turtle is frequently taken from February to June : it is the same sort as those found at the Island of Ascension—some weigh more than five hundred pounds, and are very delicious.
Long-legs resemble the crayfish, and are equally fine.
Stumps, a curious description of shell-fish, unlike either the long-legs or the crab—edible.
Of the crab there is variety : few are used at table.
There are limpets, periwinkles, and shrimps ; and a species of oyster, which adheres so firmly to the rocks that it is with difficulty removed ; when opened it appears like an English scollop ; the edges of the shell are more deeply serrated than even those of the scollop, and when closed are inserted into each other. Its exterior appearance, in other respects, is that of the common oyster : the fish itself is more a congeries than a single body.
The echini, or sea-eggs, are remarkable only for their number : the roe, which is between their sutures inside, is the only edible part—said to be in perfection during the full of the moon.
On the small beaches of the bays to windward, especially at Sandy Bay, are washed on shore shell-fish, about the size and shape of a snail ; the upper half of the shell is purple, the lower pure white ; to it is appended a transparent, membranaceous bladder, about two inches long, closed at the extremity. This separated from the fish while yet alive, a liquid of exquisite purple tint fills the shell. It is presumed to be the species of murex, from which was obtained the famous Tyrian dye, so much valued by the ancients.
The actinia, or sea-anemone, is observed fastened to the rocks in small ponds and creeks, where the water continually reaches it : the stem, or case, is cylindrical, of a whitish grey : the feeders (petals) white at their immediate projection, their extremities of a beautiful carnation colour ; if they are touched they are instantly and entirely withdrawn into the trunk. Numbers of asterias, star-fish of various colours and sizes are in similar places.
The sepia octopodia, polypus of Pliny is found also in holes of the rocks containing salt water, and often caught at sea by fishermen : when disturbed, it emits, from a certain distinct vessel a fluid, black as ink.
The manati, or manatee, seacow, or sea-lion, sometimes visits the shores—a considerable quantity of oil may be obtained from its carcase.
The following description of this large animal is extracted from a manuscript of a gentleman, late of this Island, written many years ago :— “There is also here the manatee, commonly called the sea-cow, though it certainly is the sea-lion, mentioned by Lord Anson, in his Voyage round the World : this creature comes on shore to disencumber itself of its fat, or blubber, which it does by cutting its skin against the rocks, from whence issues a great quantity of oil ; and after it has rid itself of its burden, it retires to the sea again. It will lay four, five, or more days on shore, if not disturbed, but on the least disturbance makes towards the sea : it has a large head and neck, like that of a bull, with large teeth and whiskers, rather resembling horn than hair ; (the common people affirm, that wearing these, ring fashion, is a specific against the cramp). In smelling, it moves its nose like a dog : it has two short paws, or feet, not much unlike those of a dog, extremely strong, and the claws are also not much different ; the tail part is divided into a kind of fin, to assist it in swimming. The eyelids of this creature are very remarkable : the undermost is a thin, transparent skin, which falls down over the eye, while the eye itself remains entirely open : this, I imagine, Nature has provided for the security of the creature’s eye, while under water, as it can certainly see through it : when it sleeps on shore, both the eye-lids of each eye are shut. The method of taking it is, by shooting it near the eye, or with a hatchet to split its head open ; for, if you fire twenty or more balls at its body, they will take little or no effect, on account of the thickness of its fat.”
Quantity of fish caught per month, averaged, from the returns given in by the clerk of the fish-market for six months, in the years 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814 :—
|Various descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||7807||pounds|
|Mackerel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2030||dozen|
|Bull’s eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1428||do.|
independent of turtle, stumps, and longlegs.
From this statement, it appears that the sea is here remarkably productive, and that, “from the bulky whale to the microscopic polypus, the classes of the animal reign have numerous and interesting families ; perhaps few seas have been more lavishly endowed by Nature, than those which bound the shores of this Island.”
* * *
The climate of Saint Helena is unquestionably one of the most temperate and sulubrious in the universe unvexed by storms of any kind, it is almost continually serene ; no earthquakes agitate this singular spot, no volcano menaces it with destruction, neither thunder nor lightning disturb the repose of its inhabitants. It arises from a mighty sea, the unruffled waves of which gently lave its shores ; fixed, as it were, the pure abode of health, in the delightful region of peace.
To give a correct idea of its temperature throughout the year, the thermometer of Fahrenheit seldom falls below 54 on the highest land, or rises in James’s Town to more than 84°. The following table is an average taken from meteorological journals, kept with great accuracy at Long Wood, and in town for the years 1812 and 1813.
|January . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 76°||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .68°|
|February . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 78||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .71|
|March . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 79||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .72|
|April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 78||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .70|
|May . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 77||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .67|
|June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 75||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .65|
|July . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 73||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .64|
|August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 72||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .64|
|September . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 71||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .63|
|October . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 73||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .62|
|November . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 73||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .63|
|December . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||. 74||. . . . . . . . . . . . . .64|
So that at Long Wood the medium heat of those years was 66° and in James’s Town 74°.
Considering the geographical situation of the Island, it appears extraordinary that its temperature should be so moderate as the above table exhibits ; cooled by a pure and steady wind, (which
Sicut puellæ non amantis oestatem,
Mota salubre purpura venit frigus,)
and refreshed by gentle periodical rains ; it is no less genial to the health of the inhabitants, than it is admirably adapted to bestow success on the efforts of agricultural industry, and to promote the growth and prosperity of the many productions of the vegetable kingdom, exotic and indigenous, which adorn and enrich its surface.
It has been asserted, that “the principal inconvenience of this fine climate arises from a want of rain, which proves a great obstruction to the improvement of the soil, and not unfrequently a severe scourge ; for the rains, which are always too scanty here, have been sometimes so deficient, that a continued drought of three years has been known, which has destroyed the cattle, killed many of the trees, and withered every appearance of vegetation.”
This statement is not altogether accurate. Saint Helena has, it is true, been visited by droughts, but not more frequently than other parts of the globe : from the year 1790 to 1793, a continued calamity of this kind was experienced on it, by which nearly eighteen hundred cattle perished, and other effects of this severe scourge were, undeniably, very afflicting : but no event similar to this in duration or intensity, is either remembered or recorded ; nor has there been since any protracted period of weather so dry as to be attended with disastrous consequences.
The rainy seasons, which generally set in about January or February in summer, and July or August in winter, continue from six to nine or ten weeks : occasionally so plenteous has been the descent, that in the valleys floods have accumulated, and, with resistless force, swept away plantations, houses, and even strong lines of defence. From 1812 to 1815 there was not a month without rain.
On the upper lands there is more rain than on those less elevated, which is of course effected by the attraction of the hills and the trees on them : hence it is, that at Plantation House, which is in the neighbourhood of the mountains, and directly in the track of the clouds and fogs passing to leeward, a greater depth is measured than at Long Wood, which is entirely open and exposed to the south-east wind.
Fall of rain at Plantation House and Long Wood in 1813 :—at
|January . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||3||00||2||16|
|February . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2||54||1||50|
|March . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1||54||1||04|
|April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2||61||2||01|
|May . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||9||84||4||42|
|June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||3||65||2||70|
|July . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2||23||1||84|
|August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1||62||1||02|
|September . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||2||79||2||00|
|October . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||0||66||0||25|
|November . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1||81||1||19|
|December . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||0||44||0||16|
There can be no doubt, that if the Island was more abundantly wooded, it would attract a greater portion of humidity, and consequently become more productive : this is likely soon to be the case, in consequence of the extirpation of the goats and common sheep, and the patriotic exertions which have followed up the examples of the late and present governors, in forming extensive shrubberies and plantations of young trees, particularly pines and oaks. Applications made by landholders for the former sort, and which were complied with from the Honourable Company’s nurseries in 1814, amounted to twenty-three thousand plants
A strong proof of the salubrity of the climate is evidenced in the speedy recovery of the sick, landed from ships : the pure air and water, the plentiful and wholesome supplies of fresh meat and vegetables of all descriptions, and the care and attention with which they are treated, generally effecting a state of convalescence, if not a cure, even in the most desperate cases.
In the year 1807, the measles was introduced here, by incautiously permitting linen to be landed from some Indiamen, just arrived from the Cape of Good Hope, where that dreadful malady raged violently : it immediately spread like a pestilence ; great numbers of the inhabitants, chiefly aged persons and children, were, in a very short time, consigned to the grave. Those who resided in the country either escaped, or for the most part survived its attack ; but in the town very few instances of recovery were accomplished ; the loathsome disease, having exhausted its victims, the Island was restored to its usual health in a few months. No other instance of contagion is to be found in the annals of its history ; and no symptom of this disorder has since reappeared. The small-pox, once greatly dreaded, though unknown here, is now provided against, almost every one liable to its infection having undergone the operation of vaccine inoculation.
* * *
It is not extraordinary that in such a climate, subjects of the vegetable kingdom, collected from all parts of the globe, should arrive at perfection : exotics, from cold or torrid countries, they flourish as luxuriantly as if they were rooted in their native soil : no common, gratification is derived in beholding the oak, coffee, chesnut, olive, bamboo, cypress, cocoa, pine, date, and many other trees, with shrubs and plants equally distinct, grouped together or detached, growing in full vigour, strength, and beauty.
The writer of these pages had the happiness to be known to the late eminent and sincerely regretted Dr. Roxburgh, during his residence on the Island in 1813 and 1814, and to his kindness is indebted for the principal part of the following botanical list, noticed and described by him : the infirm state of that gentleman’s health did not allow him to pursue his researches entirely throughout the Island, or the catalogue would have been more numerous ; some of the Plants thus omitted by him are inserted, having been carefully examined.
INDIGENOUS, OR NATIVE PRODUCTIONS.
Acalypha rubra. R. Stringtree tree
Acrostichum bifurcatum. W.
–––––––––– lanceolatum. R.
Agrostis purpurascens. W. Purple bent grass
–––––– stellata. W. Wire grass
Asplenium tenellum. R.
–––––––– radicans. R.
–––––––– filamentosum. R.
–––––––– falcatum. W.
–––––––– præmorsum. W.
Aster glutinosus. R. locally Shrub-wood
–––– fruticosus. L. locally Star-wort
Beatsonia portulacifolia. R. Saint Helena tea ; named by Dr. Roxburgh after Governor Beatson.
Bidens arborea. R. White- wood-cabbage tree. Alpine.
Boerhaavia repanda. R.
Carex pedunculata. R. Cyperus grass
Cheilanthes tenuifolia. R.
Conyza gummifera. R. Gumwood tree
–––––– robusta. R. Bastard ditto
Convolvulus brasiliensis. L.
Dicksonia arborescens. W. Tree-fern
Dombeya Erythroxylon. W. Red-wood tree
––––––– melanoxylon. R. Ebony
Fimbristylis textilis. R. Saint Helena rush
Grammitis marginella. W.
Hedyotis arborea. R. Dog-wood tree
Kyllingia monocephala. W.
–––––– sumatrensis. W.
Lobelia scævolifolia. R.
Lycopodium cernuum. W. Buck’s-horn
––––––––– axillare. R.
Mikania arborea. R. She-cabbage tree
Ophioglossum lusitanicum. W. Adder’s tongue
Phylica rosmarinifolia. R. Wild rosemary
–––––– elliptica. R. Wild olive
Plantago robusta. R. Plantain
–––––– major. W. Plantain
Polypodium viscidum. R.
––––––––– Dicksonifolium. R.
––––––––– molle W.
––––––––– rugulosum. W.
––––––––– macrocarpum. W.
Pteris semiserrata. R.
—— paleacea. R.
Roella angustifolia. R. Beautiful flowering shrubs
––––– paniculata. R.
––––– linifolia. R.
Salsola salsa. W. Barilla plant
Solidago spuria. W. Bastard cabbage-tree
––––––– Leucodendron. W. Cabbage tree gum wood
––––––– integrifolia. R. Black cabbage tree
Solidago cuneifolia. R. He cabbage-tree
––––––– rotundifolia. R. Cabbage-tree
Spilanthes tetrandra. R.
EXOTIC TREES SHRUBS &C.
Abrus precatorius. L.
Acer Pseudo-Platanus. W. Sycamore
Achras Sapota. L. Sapota*
Achyranthes aspera. L.
Acorus Calamus. L. Sweet flag*
Æschynomene Sesban. R.
––––––––––– grandiflora. R.
Agapanthus umbellatus. W.
Agaricus compestris. L. Mushroom*
Agave tuberosa. L.
––––– lurida. L.
Aleurites triloba. W.
Allium. L. var. Leek, onion, &c. &c.
Aloe perfoliata, et spicata
Alcea. L. Hollyhock*
Alsine. L. var. Chickweed*
Althæa oflicinalis. L. Marsh mallow*
Amaranthus Blitum, caudatus, et tricolor. W.
Amaryllis Belladonna. W. Belladonna lily
––––––– formosissima. W. Jacobea lily
Amygdalus Persica, &c. L. Varieties of Peach
Amyris gileadensis. L. Balm of Gilead*
Amomum Zingiber. L. Ginger*
Anagallis arvensis. L. Pimpernel
Anagyris foetida. L.*
Andropogon Schoenanthus. L. Lemongrass
Angelica bracteata. R. Angelica Anethum graveolens, &c. var. Fennel, &c.*
Annona tripetala. W. Species of Custard-apple
–––––– muricata. L.
–––––– squamosa. L.
–––––– reticulata. L.
Antholyza æthiopica. L. Antholyza
Andryola integrifolia. L. Downy sow thistle*
Anthoxanthum odoratum. W. Vernal grass
Apium Petroselinum. L. Parsley
Asparagus capensis. L. Cape asparagus*
Arbutus laurifolia. L. Strawberry-tree*
Argemone mexicana. L. Prickly poppy
Arum Colocasia. W. St. Helena Yam
Asclepias fruticosa. W. Shrubby asclepias
Asclepias curassavica. W. Bast Ipecacuanha
Aspalathus. L. var. African broom*
Atriplex triangularis. W. Orach
Atropa physaloides. L. Blue-flowered nightshade
Avena sativa. L. Oats*
Bambusa arundinacea. W. Bamboo cane
Barleria cristata. L.
Barringtonia speciosa. W.
Beta vulgaris. L. Common beet & its var.
––– Cicla. L. White beet
Bignonia indica. L. Trumpet flower
Borago zeylanica. L. Ceylon Borage
Bromelia Ananas. L. Pine-apple*
Brassica oleracea, &c. var. Cabbage, &c.
Browallia elata. W.
Bubon macedonicum. L. Macedonian Parsley*
Buxus sempervirens. W. Box
Cactus coccinellifer. L. Nopal
––––– Opuntia. L. Prickly pear
––––– chinensis, R. Chinese cactus
Calla oethiopica. W. African arum
Calendula Tragus. L.
–––––––– officinalis. L. Marigold
Camellia japonica. 2 var. L. Japan rose
Campanula Medium, &c. L. Canterbury bells
Cannabis sativa. L. Hemp
Canna indica. L. Indian shot
Capsicum. L. 3 var.
Caryophyllus aromaticus. L. Clove-tree*
Cassia alata. L.
––––– Sophora. L.
––––– Chamæcrista. L.
––––– microphylla. W.
––––– aurea. R.
––––– esculenta. R.
Castanea vesca. W. Chesnut
Casuarina equisetifolia. L.*
Celosia cristata. L. Cock’s comb amaranth*
Celsia Arcturus. W.
Centaurea moschata. W. Sweet sultan
Cheiranthus Cheiri. W. Wall-flower
––––––––– incanus. W. Gilly-flower or Stock
––––––––– odoratissimus. W. Persian stock
Chenopodium ambrosioides. L. Wild orach
––––––––––– album. L. White goose-foot
––––––––––– viride. L. Green goose-foot
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. L. Corn marigold*
Cichorium Intybus, et Endiva. W. Succory, and Endive
Cicer arietinum. W. Chick-pea
Citrus. L. In all its varieties of lemon, orange, &c.
Clitoria Ternatea. L.
Cluytia pulchella. W.
Cocos nucifera. W. Cocoa- nut palm
Cochlearia Armoracia. L. Horse-radish*
Coffea arabica. L. Coffee-tree
Coix Lachryma. L. Job’s tears*
Conium maculatum. L. hemlock*
Convolvulus purpureus. W.
––––––––– Batatas. W. Sweet potato
Cookia punctata. W. Wampee
Cordia macrophylla. R.
––––– campanulata. R.
Cotula coronopifolia. W. Pagoda plant
Cotyledon Umbilicus. L. Navel wort*
Crinum toxicarium. R. Species of Asphodel-lily
Crescentia Cujete. L. Calabash
Crithmum maritimum. L. Samphire*
Crotalaria incanescens. L.
–––––––– retusa. L.
–––––––– laburnifolia. L.
Croton sebiferum. L. Tallow-tree
Cucumis sativus, Melo,* &c. &c. Cucumber, melon, &c.
Cucurbita lagenaria. L. Bottle gourd
––––––– Pepo.L. Pompion, or pumpkin
––––––– Citrullus.L. Water-melon
Cuponia capensis. W.
Cupressus sempervirens, &c. 3 species of Cypress
Curtisia faginea. W. Hassagay-tree
Cycas revoluta. W. Narrow-leaved Sago Palm
Cynara Scolymus. W. Artichoke
Cynosurus corocanus. W. Dog’s tail grass
Cyperus rotundus. W. Greater galangal
Dalbergia Sissoo. R. Large timber trees
Daphne odora. W. Sweet-scented Daphne
Datura Stramonium. L. Common Thorn apple
––––– Metel. L. Downy do.
––––– Tatula. L. Blue do.
Daucus Carota. L. Carrot
Delphinium. L. Larkspur*
Dianthus Caryophyllus. L. Clove pink
––––––– barbatus. L. Sweet William
––––––– chinensis. L. China pink
Diospyros Kaki. L. Japan diospyros
Diosma capensis. L. Cape Diosma*
Dracæna australis et cernua. W.
Erica. L. Heath. Several Cape species*
Erodium, sempervivum. R. Old father live for ever
Erythrina caffra, W. Cape coral-tree
Eugenia Jambos. W. Rose-apple
Euphorbia rosea. W. French grass
–––––––– Peplus. W. Small spurge
Euphrasia lutea. W. Eye-bright*
Ficus Carica. L. Fig-tree
–––– indica. W. Banyan-tree
–––– religiosa. W.
–––– terebrata. W. Pepel-tree
and another species
Fragaria vesca. W. Strawberries
Fraxinus chinensis R. China ash
Fuchsia coccinea. W. Scarlet fuchsia
Fumaria capreolata. W. Ramping Fumitory
Gardenia florida. W. Cape Jasmine
––––––– Thunbergia. W. Starry Gardenia
––––––– radicans. W. Rooting do.
Gleditschia horrida. W.
Glecoma hederacea. L. Ground-ivy*
Gmelina asiatica. W.
Gomphrena globosa. W. Globe amaranth
Gossypium latifolium et barbadense. W. Cotton
Guaiacum afrum. L. Lignum vitæ*
Hedysarum gyrans. L. Moving plant*
Hakea gibbosa. H. K.
Helianthus annuus. L. Sun-flower
Heliotropium indicum, W. Turnsole
Hemerocallis fulva W. Day-lily
Hibiscus populneus. W. Poplar-leaved Hibiscus
–––––– populneoides. R.
–––––– armatus. R. Rock rose
–––––– Sabdariffa. W. West India sorrel
–––––– Rosa sinensis. W. Chinese rose Hibiscus
–––––– syriacus. W. Althæa-frutex
–––––– cannabinus. L. Hemp leaved Hibiscus
–––––– Trionum. W. Bladder Ketmia
–––––– mutabilis. W. Changeable Rose Hibiscus
–––––– urens L.
–––––– Abelmoschus, L. Musk Okro
–––––– diversifolius. W.
–––––– phoeniceus. W.
–––––– tiliaceus. W.
Holcus bicolor. L. Indian millet
Hordeum hexastichon. W. Spring barley
––––––– distichon. W. Common do.
Hyocinthus. L. var. Hyacinth*
Hydrocotyle asiatica. W. Thick-leaved penny-wort
Hydrangea hortensis. W. Chinese Guelder rose
Hymenophyllum capillaceum. R. A parasitic fern
Hypericum monogynum. W. Chinese St. John’s wort
Jasminum. Officinale. W. Common Jasmine
Jasminum odoratissimum. W. Yellow Indian Jasmine
Jatropa Manihot. L. Cassada*
Ilex Aquifolium. L. Holly*
Impatiens Balsamina. W. Garden Balsam
Indigofera tinctoria. W. Indigo-plant
Juglans nigra. L. Black Walnut
Justicia Betonica. W. Betel-nut
Ixia. L. Several species
Lactuca sativa. L. Lettuce
Lamium purpureum. W. Red dead nettle
Laurus Persea. W. Alligator pear
Lawsonia inermis. L.
Leontodum Taraxacum. W. Dandelion
Ligustrum japonicum. L. Privet*
Lonicera Periclymenum. W. Woodbine
––––––– Caprifolium. W. Perfoliate Honeysuckle
Lupinus. L. Lupine
––––––– obovata. W. Chinese Magnoliæ
Malva mauritania. L. Ivy-leaved mallow
Mangifera indica. L. Mango
Marchantia polymorpha. L.
Medicago sativa. L. Snail trefoil*
Melia sempervirens. W. Bead, or
–––– superba. R. Margossa-tree
–––– robusta. R.
–––– Azederach. W.
Melissa Nepeta. L. Lesser Calamint
–––––– officinalis. L. Balm
Mentha viridis, &c. L. Mint, &c.
Mespilus japonica. W. Louquat
Mesembryanthemum. L. Fig marigold—several species
Michelia Champaca. W.
Mimosa arabica. R. Gum arabic tree
–––––– Lebbeck. R. Bois nou of the Mauritius
–––––– cinerea. L. (Desmanthus cinereus. W.)
–––––– glaucescens. R.
–––––– juniperina. (Acacia juniperina. W.)
–––––– linifolia. L. (Acacia linifolia. W.)
–––––– glauca. L. (––––– glauca. W.)
–––––– nilotica. (––––– vera. W.)
–––––– farnesiana. L. (––––– farnesiana, W.)
–––––– scandens. L. (––––– scandens. W.)
Mimosa myrtifolia. R. Botany Bay willow (Acacia myrtifolia. W.)
Mimusops Elengi. W. Bocul the Hindoos
Mirabilis Jalapa L. Marvel of Peru
Momordica Charantia. W. Balsam apple
Morus nigra. W. Mulberry-tree
––––– athropurpurea. R. From China
Murraya exotica W. China box-tree
Musa sapientum W. Banana-tree
–––– paradisiaca. W. Plantain-tree
Myrtus Pimenta. W. Jamaica pepper
––––– communis. W. Myrtle
Myristica moschata. W. Nutmeg
Narcissus. L. Narcissus, a few species
Nerium tinctoriom. R. et odorum. W. Oleander
Nicotiana Tabacum. W. Tobacco
Olea europæa. W. Olive-tree
–––– capensis. W. Cape do.
Origanum majoranoides. W. Shrubby Marjoram
Osteospermum pisiferum. W. Small flowered Osteospermum
Oxalis. L. Sorrel,* several Cape species
Panicum Dactylon. W. Wire, or dupe grass
–––––– ciliare. W.
–––––– ægyptiacum. W.
–––––– italicum. W.
–––––– verticillatum. W.
–––––– molle. W.
Papaver. L. var. Poppy*
Parkinsonia aculeata. W.
Passiflora coerulea. W. Passion-flower
––––––– laurifolia. W. Laurel leaved passion-flower*
Pastinaca sativa. W. Parsnip
Pelargonium. W. Many Cape species
Phaseolus vulgaris, &c. W. var. Kidney bean
Phoenix dactylifera. W. Date tree
Phillyrea media. W. Phillyrea
Phleum pratense. L. Cat’s-tail grass*
Phlomis nepetifolia. W.
–––––– indica. W. Indian sage
Phyllanthus andrachnoides. W. Sea-side laurel
Physalis peruviana. W. Brasil cherry
Pinus longifolia. W. Long-leaved Pinetree
–––– Pinaster. W. Pinaster
–––– Pinea. W. Stone-pine
–––– sylvestris. W. Scotch fir
Pisum sativum. Garden-pea, var.
Poa japonica, pratensis et laxa. W. Grasses
Poinciana pulcherrima. W. Prickly flower-fence
Polianthes tuberosa. W. Tuberose
Polygonum Hydropiper. L. Water pepper*
Populus alba. W. White poplar
Portulacca oleracea. Purslane
Protea argentea. W. Silver-tree
––––– mellifera. W. Honey-bearing Protea
––––– glomerata. W.
––––– patula. W.
Psidium pomiferum. W. Guava
Psoralea pinnata. W. Goble-gheer
Punica Granatum. L. Pomegranate
Pyrus chinensis. R. China-pear
–––– Malus. W. var. Apple-tree
–––– Cydonia. W. Quince-tree
Quercus Robur. W. Oak
Quercus Ilex. W. Evergreen oak
Quercus Suber. W. Cork-tree
Ranunculus bulbosus. W. Butter-cups
Raphanus sativus. L. Raddish
Rhinanthus Crista galli. L.* Yellow rattle
Rhus Vernix. W. Varnish Sumach
Ricinus communis. W. Palma Christi
Rosa triphylla. R. Three-leaved rose
–––– rubiginosa. W. Sweet-briar*
–––– muscosa. W. Moss-rose
–––– centifolia. W. Common rose
–––– indica. W. Chinese rose
–––– semperflorens. W. Everblowing rose
Rosmarinus offic. L. Rosemary
Rubus pinnatus. W. Wing-leaved Blackberry
Rumex. L. Dock, 3 or 4 species
Ruta graveolens. W. Rue
Saccharum officinarum. W. Sugar-cane
Salix babylonica. W. Weeping-willow
Salvia officinalis. L. Common sage
Sambucus nigra. W. Elder
Scorzonera. L. Viper’s grass*
Scytalia Litchi et Longan. R. Litchi
Senecio Jacobea. W. Rag-wort
Sida crispa. L.* Species of
––– asiatica. L.* Indian mallow
––– cristata. L.*
––– lanceolata. W.
Sinapis arvensis. L. Mustard*
Sisymbrium Nasturtium. L. Water-cress*
Solanum Melongena. L. Egg-plant*
––––––– tuberosum. L. Potato
––––––– sodomeum. W. Black spined Solanum
Solanum Lycopersicum. W. Love-apple
––––––– nigrum. W. Garden nightshade
––––––– Pseudo capsicum. L. Shrubby Solanum
Sonchus oleraceus. L. Sow-thistle
Spartium Junceum. W. Spanish Broom
Spinacia oleracea. W. Spinach
Spiræa corymbosa. R.
Strelitzia Reginæ et alba*
Syringa vulgaris. W. Common lilac
Tagetes patula. W. French marigold
–––––– erecta. W. African do.
Tamarindus indica. W. Tamarind-tree
Taxus elongata. W. Cape yew.
–––– chinensis. R. China do.
Tectona grandis. L. Teak-tree
Terminalia Catappa. W.
–––––––– procera. W.
Thuja orientalis. W. Chinese arbor vitæ
–––– cupressoides. W. African do.
Thymus vulgaris. W. Thyme
Tilia europoea. Lime-tree*
Tribulus terrestris. L. Caltrops*
Tricosanthes Anguina. W. Snake-gourd
Trifolium. L. var. Clover, &C.
Trigonella Foenum græcum. L. Fenugreek*
Triticum æstivum, & hybernum. W. Wheat
Tropæolum majus. W. Nasturtium
Ulex europæus. W. Furze
Urtica tenacissima. R.
––––– pilulifera. L. Roman Nettle*
Vicia Faba. W. Garden-bean
Vinca rosea. W. Madagascar periwinkle
Viola tricolor. W. Heart’s-ease
Vitis vinifera, W. Grape-vine
Volkameria inermis. W.
Xeranthemum lucidum. Sneesewort
Zea Mays. W. Indian corn, or Maize
Thus the vegetable kingdom of Saint Helena amounts to nearly five hundred species.
By the roman capitals R. L. W. the names of Roxburgh, Linnæus, and Willdenow are to be understood.
The subjects omitted by Dr. Roxburgh are marked with an asterisk *.