CONTENTS.


1.     Map of the Island.
2.     The Tomb of the Emperor Napoleon.
3.     Longwood Old House.
4.     Longwood New House.
5.     The Road to Longwood from the Alarm House.
6.     The Briars and Pavilion.
7.     James Town, showing the Harbour.
8.     James Town, showing the Inclined Plane and Ladder Hill.
9.     Main Street of James Town.
10.     Plantation House and St. Paul's Cathedral.
11.     Oak Bank.
12.     Scotland.

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MAP OF ST. HELENA.


Extreme Length of the Island . . . 10½ miles.
Extreme Breadth . . .  
Cicumference . . . 29     
Superficies . . . 30,300 acres.
Height of Diana's Peak . . . 2700 feet.
Ladder Hill . . . 600   "

Population, 6000, exclusive of the Garrison.

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[A large image - 2768 x 1873 pixels - of the map is available.]


THE TOMB OF THE LATE EMPEROR NAPOLEON THE FIRST.

In which his body remained nearly 20 years.

4


THE OLD HOUSE AT LONGWOOD.

Now restored by the present Emperor to the condition in which it was when occupied by his uncle.

5


LONGWOOD NEW HOUSE.

Built by the British Government for the Emperor's accomodation, but never occupied by him.
Situate a short distance to the north of the Old House.

6


VIEW SHOWING THE ROAD LEADING TO LONGWOOD.

From the Alarm House, about 2 miles long, and nearly level.

7


THE BRIARS AND PAVILION.

Now the Property of Messrs. Solomon and Moss.

Intimately connected with the Emperor Napoleon during the early part of his captivity. It was here he resided while Longwood House was being prepared for his reception. Distant from James Town 2 miles.

8


VIEW OF JAMES TOWN.

Showing the harbour.

9


VIEW OF JAMES TOWN.

Showing the Inclined Plane to Ladder Hill. The Ladder is 700 feet in length, and has 665 steps.

10


VIEW OF THE MAIN STREET, JAMES TOWN.

Showing the house in which the Emperor Napoleon entered on his arrival at the Island. He remained there one night, started early the next morning for Longwood, and did not return to the town. This house is now the residence of the French Vice-Consul, George Moss, Esq.

11


PLANTATION HOUSE.

The official country residence of the Governor. In the back is a View of St. Paul's Church or Cathedral.

12


OAK BANK.

Property of the See, and Residence of the Lord Bishop of St. Helena.

13


SCOTLAND.

Situate in the West division and New Plantation.

14


NOTES ON THE NATURAL HISTORY

OF

THE ISLAND OF ST. HELENA.

The Island of St. Helena, from its solitary position in the South Atlantic, as well as from its marked and peculiar character, is one of considerable interest. Viewed from the sea, it offers little or nothing to the eye but an assemblage of lofty and barren hills, intersected in all directions with deep and narrow valleys, in many cases little better than ravines, and generally devoid of vegetation, except here and there patches of prickly-pear, samphire, and profitless weeds ; the wooden peaks in the interior being in most positions hidden from view by the height of the almost perpendicular cliffs running down to the sea. A mere glance shows it to be volcanic, belonging very probably to the later stages of the secondary, or beginning of the tertiary periods. Whether it is due to the action of an upheaving force, or is the mere wreck of a long chain of hills, of which St. Helena and Ascension, formed part, there appears to be no satisfactory data whereon to hang even the shadow of an argument.
   To whatever cause or causes it may be due, it is certain that the forces in action operated at different, and perhaps distant, times, as the consecutive streams of mud-stores, lava, and stratified sands and marls may be readily and distinctly traced on almost every hill. Many of the stratifications are remarkable for the number of lamina they show, being often very numerous, although the particular bed itself may be only a few feet thick. All, or most of these, appear to be due to the action of water ; and as they often occur at considerable elevations, they would seem to favour the hypothesis of an upheaving

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force. There are many remarkable bands of a kind of sandy loam, running nearly all around the Island, some almost on a level with the sea, and others near the summit of many of the hills—being, however, mostly inclined to the horizon at a considerable angle, and generally running from West to East.
   These bands are very conspicuous, from being variously coloured, often of a vivid red, orange, and yellow, with all their intermediate shades ; and if care is taken in their selection, the softer parts of them may be ground up and used as materials for common oil-paint, as they will admit of being reduced to very fine powder.
   Good examples of these bands may be seen at Munden's Point, the West Rocks, Major Barnes', New Road, as well as in many of the ridges.
   Sandy Bay and its neighbourhood is a very remarkable district, and perhaps one of the most striking in the island, as the rocks and hills are bold, barren, and angular, broken up into valleys and ravines in great variety, and often of singular form, as in the case of the lofty rock called "Lot," 1444 feet high, and the other in the adjoining ridge called "Lot's Wife," 1423 feet in height. The varied colours of this district are as remarkable as the district itself, being of every gradation and shade possible to be derived from the presence of the oxides of iron.
    Limestone of various quality is pretty plenifully distributed
in different parts of the Island, being found, as at Rupert's, under the shingles on the beach below the level of the sea, and near the summit of the lofty ridge between Sugarloaf and Flagstaff.
   This limestone may be distinguished as soft and hard, and both are found in the same beds, or rather from the same beds ; thus, at Rupert's, the hardest and best stone is found under the sea, the stone becoming softer as it stretches inland.
   At Sugarloaf the two are mixed together, the hard being mostly found in clumps, or large masses embedded in the soft ; and the same remark generally applies to Potatoe, Sandy, and Lot's Wife Bays, all of which contain limestone, as well as the mountain immediately facing Lot.
    Generally speaking, the soft limestone appears to be that most exposed to, and most acted upon, the atmosphere, and the hard, that which is best protected from its influence, as the hard stone in many cases appears to crumble when fully exposed. Both are of good quality and very strong. The hard will generally yield lime rich enough to bear being mixed with an equal quantity of sand, measure for measure.
   In practice, it is generally found that one bushel of fresh lime will slack to a bushel and a half, and take up that quantity of sand.
   It is further worthy of remark, that the sand so used with the lime is generally the sea-beach sand, unfreed by washing from any

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of the saline impurities it may contain ; whereas, in England, sea-sand is invariably washed to get rid of saline matters, for they absorb moisture and prevent the lime setting.
   There appears to be but three kinds of stones on the Island fit for building purposes. One is a kind of course red conglomerate, made up chiefly of calcined matters, as found at Sandy Bay and James Town : it is soft and porous, and soon decays when exposed to the atmosphere, hence its unfitness for external work : if protected, it will wear pretty well, but the best of it is bad, and very unsightly.
   The blue grey Lava Stone, so abundant in the Island, is the most commonly used for external purposes. Where durability is required, it is a very good stone, nearly as hard as granite, and of very considerable density, although it is honeycombed, like most lavas. It is often traversed by dark veins of exceedingly hard, flint-like stone, which is very difficult to work, and ruinous to chisels if not well steeled. The third stone, although a lava, is different in colour and appearance from the former ; it is more easily worked, but not so plentiful : this kind is principally found at High Knoll, at a very considerable elevation from the sea, and may be regarded as the best working stone in the Island, as it can be dressed with much less difficulty than the other lava.
    There are several kinds of schists, which are used for repairing the roads, but none of them form such a good
material for this purpose as the hard mud-stone and coarse conglomerates, found bedded between the layers of lava.
   There are but few fossils to be found in the Island, as might be expected : in the lime on Sugarloaf Hill, and in the Gypseous earth near Flagstaff Hill, there are found three different kinds of Shells, supposed to be of extinct species.—one kind of a very small Ammonite, and the other not unlike the Paudina Lenta of the London clay : they are said to be all land species. Small bones are very abundant in the Limestone at Sugarloaf, but are evidently recent, and the shells appear to belong to no very remote age. The Limestone itself seems to be made up of an admixture of comminuted shells and sand, and, though now in the midst of lava, and on the summit of hills, has at some time or other been exposed to the influence and action of water. Sulphate of Lime, in the shape of fibrous and earthy gypsum, is found in the crevices and on the surface of the rocks, but generally in the neighbourhood of the Limestone beds. It is found at Flagstaff, the Barn, Banks', and Sandy Bay ; and if care is taken in the selection, tolerably good plaster of Paris may be obtained from it by calcination, sufficiently pure and strong to answer most purposes for which that useful article is required.
   Most of the common Lavas here contain quantities of Felspar bedded in their mass, of different sizes, which soon decay when exposed to the weather ; generally crumbling into a rusty red dust,

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coloured by iron, which, with other matters, form beds of loamy soil in the slopes of the hills.
    In many places, as at Rupert's Hill, near the Briars, large calcined boulders are seen bedded in the scoriæ ; they appear to be made up of concentric laminæ, and seem almost as if they had been, at no remote period, vomited from the fiery mouth of some volcano.
   Some few of the hills are tolerably well wooded, and the loftiest of the whole, Diana's Peak, 2700 feet high, is clothed to the very summit.
   When first discovered, in 1502, it was almost covered with trees right down to the water's edge in the valleys, principally, it appears, with Gumwood, Ebony, and Redwood. The former flourished nearest the sea, the two latter principally up the slopes ; and the hill-tops appear to have been mostly covered with the Cabbage-tree, which at present grows on the summits in conjunction with the Fern-tree, a very elegant and pleasing kind of minor tree.
   The Ebony has long since disappeared, the last being found on Deadwood, which was remarkable for its excessive hardness, size, and density.
   The redwood is now scarce, and, like the Ebony, would altogether have disappeared, had not Governor Byefield caused two young trees to be set at Plantation House, from which two all at present in the Island owe their existence.
   The Cabbage-tree wood appears to be tolerably durable when under shelter, and, judging by the remains of it in existing buildings, it would appear to have been of more luxuriant growth than at present ; it is not a very sightly tree, and the odd bunches of leaves with flowers at the head of its branches look at a distance not unlike a cabbage or brocoli, whence probably its name.
   The cultivated parts of the Island, particularly in the neighbourhood of Plantation, as seen from High Knoll, remind the stranger very much of England, especially of parts of Devonshire.
   The illusion, or likeness, is further carried out by the large quantities of luxuriant furze and scrambling brambles, seen in full bloom down the slopes of the hills, and along the lanes and by-roads.
   The furze appears to have been introduced into the island during the early part of the last century, and has proved very useful to the inhabitants by furnishing them with a plentiful supply of firewood. It does not appear to be sued here as it is in the north of England, for the purpose of watling in the walls, for making warm and comfortable outbuildings for farms and other purposes.
   When used this way, it is merely twisted between the upright posts supporting the building, and, if closely worked in, makes a warm building.
   There are several plantations in the Island pretty well stocked

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with good-sized trees, principally pine and fir, which grow very well here, but for timber purposes the wood is too coarse and open in texture, resulting most likely from its rapid growth. The wood will answer for common purposes when protected from the weather, but otherwise it appears soon to decay, and subject to rot.
   These trees, however, are a great ornament to the Island, and add much to its English appearance, as they are the predominating ones, and give a character to the scenery.
   The Scarlet geranium grows wild and very luxuriantly among the rocks, and in some places may be seen whole hedges of it ; the Nasturtium also grows wild, and Water-cresses are found in the valley-streams, as well as many other plants common in England.
   Barilla, called here samphire, is very abundant in most parts of the Island ; and the true samphire is found in many places, but does not appear to be much used. Fruit of many kinds grow very well here ; the pears are large, plump, and juicy, and are seen on the tree at the same time as the blossoms. Peaches are good and plentiful, their beautiful blossoms being often seen in the hedges ; the Fig-tree thrives pretty well, as also oranges and lemons, and the useful Plantain. Coffee has been tried and succeeded : it is considered to be very good in quality and flavour. Cotton grows
wild, as well as the castor-oil plant.
   The Port Jackson Willow thrives exceedingly well, and will ultimately be valuable for supplying firewood, as it grows quickly and throws up much underwood : it is a very ornamental tree in all its aspects, especially pleasing to the eye when full of its yellow catkins.
   The Bilberry, or Cape Gooseberry, is a useful fruit, and forms an excellent substitute for the English Gooseberry, which it much resembles in taste when cooked : it is the more useful from the fact that the English Gooseberry does not thrive well here, but runs into an unfruitful shrub.
   The trees most cultivated in James Town are the Margossa and the Banyan, neither of which are of any great use, except for a little shelter from the sun : the Banyan is more curious than beautiful. The Date, Cocoa, and Cypress, are seen in some of the gardens, and the long leaf of the Plantain mostly accompanies them wherever water can be obtained.
   A great variety of plants, the natives of different regions, may be seen growing equally well on St. Helena, the configuration of which affords a considerable range of climate : Dr. Roxburgh's catalogue of the indigenous plants has been reprinted in former years. A list of the exotic trees and shrubs now growing on the Island may prove not uninteresting.

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EXOTIC TREES AND SHRUBS.—ST. HELENA.

Common Oak China Weeping Birch Yellow Tahitian ditto China Privet
Mosscap do. Murraya Mimosa-various Jasmine (2 kinds)
Evergreen do. Sago Palm Acacia-ditto Holly
Cork Tree Palmetto Port Jackson Willow Banksia (3 kinds)
Abele Tree Dragon Palm Buddlea Elder
Weeping Willow Fan Palm Candle-Nut Tree Cotton (2 kinds)
Pineaster Fir Iron Wood Yansheu Cytisus
Spreading Fir Holy Thorn China-Rose Apple Ash
Dwarf ditto Myrtle (3 kinds) Spice Tree Barbadoes Pride
Norfolk Island Pine Bauhinia Poralea Melastroma
Chili Fir Locust English Privet Lion's Tail
Cape Yew Bois Noir Sea Grape Osteospernum
Casaurina Teak Coral Tree (Jatropa) Castor Oil
Cypress (2 kinds) Cinnamon Rock Rose May
Arbor Vitæ Laurel Traveller's Joy Azalea
Eucalyptus Bay Oleander Gardenia (Cape Jasmine)
Banyan (4 kinds) Barberry Fiddle Wood Tutsan
India Rubber Tree Protœa Poly-gola Verbena
Erythrina, Cape Coral Tree Gum Benzion Spanish Broom Furze
    (3 kinds) Coffee Shade Velvet Thorn Wild Bringal
Sophora Wild Fig Cassia Bamboo (3 kinds)
Margossa Wattle of New Holland Grewia Bamboo Reed
Gamboge Gelega Datura Arborea Plumbago
Terminalia (Bengal Almond) Althœa Frutex Scarlet Cordea Camellia
Pittisporum Chinese Rose Hibiscus Soap Berry Fuchsia
Wild Olive     (Shoeblack) Screw Pine Madagascar Creeper
Black-Fruited Olive Changeable Rose (2 kinds) Date Plum Passion Flower (5 kinds)
Magnolia Single Red Hibiscus Sweet Olea Ivy
Lilliodendron      "     Purple ditto Tea Woodbine
Silkworm Mulberry White Flowered ditto Coffee  

20


FRUIT-BEARING PLANTS.

Peach Pine Apple
Apple English and Spanish Mulberry
Pear Loquat
Cape Plum Banana
Mango Apricot
Chirimoya Guava
Orange, Sweet Litchi
Ditto, Seville Melon
Lemon Cherry
Lime Indian Walnut
Shaddock Chesnut
Citron Fig
Quinee Papau Apple
Filbert Tamarind
Grape Strawberry
Pomegranate Wild Raspberry
Cocoa Nut English ditto
Date Blackberry
Granadilla (purple) Cape Gooseberry (Bilberry).
Rose Apple

The only animals found on St. Helena on its first discovery are said to have been seals, sea-lions, turtle, and sea-birds, frequenting the shores. Perhaps to these should be added the little field-mouse, so plentiful over it, and one land-bird, the wire-bird. It would be very interesting to determine if the wire-bird is found elsewhere. In habit it resembles the sand-pipes ; its colour, on the head and back is brown, something like that of the lark ; long feathers of the wings nearly black ; throat, neck, breast, and belly, pale fawn, nearly white ; a dark-brown band across the head between the eyes, and from the eyes down both sides of the neck to the shoulders ; tail short ; legs long and dark ; from the thigh-joint to the joint of the leg, 2·1 inch ; from joint of the leg to the foot, 1·6 inch ; three toes, longest, ·9 inch ; bill dark, ·9 inch in length ; weight of bird, 1 ounces. It chiefly frequents open ground, runs very quickly, and forms its nest under dry cattle-droppings, where it lays two large eggs of light stone colour, mottled with brown.

SEA BIRDS.—Man-of-War, Tropic, White Bird, Black Bird, Egg Bird, Noddy, Booby, Petrel.

LAND BIRDS.—Pheasant, Partridge, Pigeon, Dove, Minor, Canary, Averdevat, Java Sparrow, Cardinal, Wire-bird.

The pheasant and partridge are most probably both from the East. The cock-pheasant is remarkably handsome, with a white ring around the neck. The partridges, which are of a cinerous grey, marked with black, frequent principally the ravines towards the sea, and roost at night on the ledges of the rocks. The only other game are rabbits.

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FISH.

Mackeral Parrot Fish Sun Fish Stumps
Jack (2 species) Stonebrass Baracoota Longlegs
Soldier Yellow Sand Fish Flounder Bottle Fish
Bull's Eye File Fish Albicore Lantern Fish
Ditto (deepwater) Devil Fish Bonetta Rock Oyster
Conger (4 species) Leather Coat Yellow Tail Cat Fish
Kingston Sword Fish Conger Eel Porpoise
Green Fish Cunning Fish Silver Eel Rockspear
Old Wife Serpent Fish Bream Sandspear
Five Finger Sea Serpent Cavalley Cavalley Pilot
Ditto, Bastard Sea Pike Cod Silver Fish
Mullet (black and red) Sucking Fish Roman Fish Trooper
Red Sand Fish Dolphin Shark (4 species) Crab
Coal Fish Flying Fish Whale (humpback and sperm) Skulpin
Rock Fish Trumpet Fish Turtle Pilot Fish
Mail Gurnard Hog Fish Beard Fish

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Notes about this version of Fowler:

The title page and plates were scanned from an original copy of Fowler. The scanned images have been resized (size of the original plates approximately 190 by 118 mm) and edited to remove minor blemishes. The text is exactly reproduced from an original copy of Fowler.

Contributed by Barry Weaver, from whom higher resolution images (full size - very large files!) of the plates and a MS WORD version of the text can be obtained.

Details of the original:
Fowler, T.E. Views of St. Helena. St. Helena, 1863.
Size: Small oblong folio.
Text: Title (verso blank); Contents (one leaf, verso blank); Map of St. Helena title (one leaf, verso blank); one leaf of text (verso blank) to each plate; text Notes on the Natural History of the Island of St. Helena (double columns) pages 15 to 22.
Plates: Eleven tinted lithograph plates signed Published by T E Fowler, St. Helena. on plates 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12, and St. Helena, Published by T E Fowler. on plates 5, 7, and 11; imprint Printed Day & Son, Lithrs. to The Queen. on all plates.

British Library shelfmark: Not in the catalogue.
Library of Congress call number: Not in the catalogue.

Not in Abbey.


Last updated: 21 December, 2011


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